United States Patent 

Wilber 
March
1, 2005 
True random number
generator and entropy calculation device and method
Abstract
A random number
generator includes a first oscillator that provides a first oscillatory signal
to a processor, and a second oscillator that provides a signal to a frequency
multiplier, which in turn provides a second oscillatory signal to the processor.
The relative jitter between the two oscillatory signals contains a calculable
amount of entropy that is extracted by the processor to produce a sequence of
true random numbers.
Inventors: 
Wilber; Scott A. (Roswell, NM) 
Family ID: 
25458887 
Appl. No.: 
09/930,072 
Filed: 
August 15, 2001 
Current U.S. Class: 
708/255; 708/251 
Current CPC Class: 
G06F
7/588 (20130101); G06F 7/584 (20130101) 
Current International Class: 
G06F
1/02 (20060101); G06F 001/02 () 
Field of Search: 
;708/255,251 
References Cited [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents
4545024 
October 1985 
Maher 
4641102 
February 1987 
Coulthart 
4799259 
January 1989 
Ogrodski 
4959832 
September 1990 
Bardell, Jr. 
5117380 
May 1992 
Tanagawa 
5434806 
July 1995 
Hofverberg 
5602845 
February 1997 
Wahl 
5627775 
May 1997 
Hong 
5706218 
January 1998 
Hoffman 
5781458 
July 1998 
Gilley 
5961577 
October 1999 
Soenen 
5963104 
October 1999 
Buer 
6061702 
May 2000 
Hoffman 
6065029 
May 2000 
Weiss 
6522210 
February 2003 
Dvorak et al. 
6629116 
September 2003 
Rabeler 
6724805 
April 2004 
Vigoda 
2003/0014452 
January 2003 
Le Quere 
Foreign Patent Documents
0 388 131 
Mar 1990 
EP 

Other References

Primary Examiner: Malzahn; D. H.
Claims
What is claimed is:
1. A true random number generator comprising:
(a) a first oscillator producing a first oscillatory signal; (b) a second
oscillator producing a second oscillatory signal; (c) a frequency multiplier
responsive to said second oscillatory signal; (d) a processor responsive to
said first oscillatory signal and said frequency multiplier, to produce a
sequence of true random numbers.
2. A true random number generator as described
in claim 1 wherein said frequency multiplier is selected from the group
consisting of: a phase locked loop frequency multiplier, a nonlinear frequency
multiplier, and an exclusiveor logic function with unequal time delay elements
on its inputs.
3. A true random number generator as described
in claim 1 wherein the average output frequency of said frequency multiplier is
at least 10,000 times the average frequency of said first oscillatory signal
producing means.
4. A true random number generator as described
in claim 1 wherein said processor includes a counter which is incremented in
response to the output of said frequency multiplier, said counter having a
count that is read in response to said first oscillatory signal.
5. A true random number generator comprising:
(a) a personal computer including an oscillator and a first frequency
multiplier responsive to said first oscillator; (b) a microprocessor included
within said personal computer, said microprocessor including a second frequency
multiplier, and responsive to said oscillator and said first and second
frequency multipliers to produce a sequence of true random numbers.
6. A true random number generator as described
in claim 5 that can produce at least 200 bits of entropy per second.
7. A true random number generator comprising:
(a) a personal computer, including a first oscillator for producing a
lowfrequency signal and a second oscillator that is independent of said first
oscillator; (b) a first frequency multiplier responsive to said second
oscillator for producing a mediumfrequency signal; (c) a programmable
interrupt controller included in said personal computer responsive to said
lowfrequency signal; (d) a second frequency multiplier responsive to said
mediumfrequency signal for producing a highfrequency signal; (e) a counter
responsive to said highfrequency signal; (f) a microprocessor including said
counter and said second frequency multiplier, and responsive to said
programmable interrupt controller and said counter to produce a sequence of
true random numbers.
8. A true random number generator as described
in claim 7 wherein said first oscillator is included in one of the personal
computer components selected from the group consisting of: a real time clock, a
display card, an audio card, a network card, a modem, and a serial port card.
9. A true random number generator as described
in claim 7 wherein the average output frequency of said highfrequency signal
is at least 10,000 times the average frequency of said lowfrequency signal.
10. A true random number generator as described
in claim 7 that can produce at least of 200 bits of entropy per second.
11. A method of generating true random numbers
comprising: generating a first oscillatory signal; generating a second
oscillatory signal; determining values of transition jitter included in said
first and said second oscillatory signals; using said values of transition
jitter to calculate the entropy available from said first and said second
oscillatory signals; and processing said first and said second oscillatory
signals to extract said entropy in the form of a sequence of true random
numbers.
12. The method as described in claim 11
including processing said sequence of true random numbers to reduce defects in
the randomness properties of said sequence of true random numbers.
13. The method as described in claim 12 wherein
said processing of said sequence of true random numbers to reduce defects is
accomplished by: establishing three or more circular buffers in a memory
system, each of said circular buffers having a length that is relatively prime
to all the other buffers; reading the contents stored at an address from each
of said three or more circular buffers; combining said contents into a
resultant number using a first exclusiveor function; providing said resultant
number as one number in a defectreduced output sequence and also applying said
resultant number to the first input of a second exclusiveor function; applying
a number from the defectcontaining random number sequence to the second input
of said second exclusiveor function; using the resulting number of said second
exclusiveor function to replace one of the numbers stored in one of said
circular buffers; incrementing all the addresses to read from each of said
three or more circular buffers, and repeating the steps of reading, combining
in said first exclusiveor function and providing a defectreduced output
number, thereby producing a defectreduced sequence of any desired length and;
repeating the steps of performing said second exclusiveor function on each new
defectreduced output number with a new defectcontaining true random number and
using the resulting numbers to sequentially replace each of the numbers stored
in each of said three or more circular buffers.
14. The method as described in claim 12 wherein
said processing to reduce defects in the randomness properties of the true random
sequence is accomplished by: using a pseudorandom number generator to produce a
random number; providing said random number as a defectreduced output number;
applying said defectreduced output number to the first input of an
exclusiveor function; applying a number from a defectcontaining true random
number sequence to the second input of said exclusiveor function; using the
output of said exclusiveor function as a seed to be used in said pseudorandom
number generator and; repeating the step of generating a defectreduced output
number, each time using another number from the defectcontaining true random
number sequence and the new seed from said exclusiveor function, thereby
producing a defectreduced random output sequence.
15. The method as described in claim 11 wherein
calculating the entropy available is accomplished by: combining all independent
transition jitter values into an effective value; calculating a normalized
jitter value by dividing said effective value by the period of said second
oscillatory signal; utilizing said normalized jitter value to calculate an
average probability, p(1), that the state of said second oscillatory signal
will be high, or 1, when it is predicted to be high at a positive transition of
said first oscillatory signal and; utilizing said average probability, p(1), to
calculate the entropy or H using the equation,
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
Not applicable.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to random number
generators and more specifically to true or nondeterministic random number
generators.
2. Prior Art
Devices for generating what are called true or
nondeterministic random numbers are well known in the art. Examples of true
random generators using a lowfrequency oscillator and a highfrequency
oscillator are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,641,102 (1987), U.S. Pat. No.
5,781,458 (1998) and U.S. Pat. No. 6,061,702 (2000).
A circuit for generating true random numbers
using high and lowfrequency oscillators is described in detail in An LSI
Random Number Generator (RNG), Proc. Advances in Cryptology, Conference
on CRYPTO, 1984, by Fairfield, Mortenson and Coulthart.
The circuit described therein uses a noise component in the lowfrequency
signal as the source of entropy.
None of the previously available random number
generators or methods have disclosed any way of calculating or knowing the
actual amount of entropy available in the generated random sequences. Some
prior art suggests brute force approaches, wasting perhaps hundreds of bits of
entropy for each output bit. Other prior art produces sequences with less than
one bit of entropy per output bit. This is a mixed truepseudorandom generator
of indeterminate properties.
Authors have suggested methods of generating
true random numbers using components normally available on personal computers.
These include deriving entropy from keyboard stroke timing, computer mouse
movements, and air turbulence in the hard disk drive. Some discussion of such
methods is given, for example, in Randomness Recommendations for Security,
1994, by Eastlake, Crocker and Schiller, at a web site with the following
address: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1750. txt?number=1750.
While these methods may be a source of entropy, the generation rates are very
low and intermittent. Some of these methods require the interaction of a human
operator making them unsuitable for most practical uses of random numbers.
All true random number generators require a
physical source of entropy to produce random numbers, as distinct from
algorithmically generated pseudorandom numbers, which are deterministic by
nature of their source. The requirement for a physical generator has limited
the availability of high quality, true random numbers due to cost, size, power
requirements or difficulty in interfacing with the user's equipment.
A significant limitation of prior true random
number generators is the uncertainty in the actual entropy and quality of the
random numbers produced. Direct testing of a random sequence does not assure
universally acceptable results in all applications, as different types of
defects may not show up in a certain set of tests. Also, direct testing may be
impractical due to the large number of bitshence timerequired to test to
the required level of significance.
Systems for scrambling bits or correcting
defects in random number sequences are also known in the art. Examples of these
are contained in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,963,104 (1999) and 6,061,702 (2000).
Randomness defect correction can also be accomplished by encryption methods,
such as DES.
It is important to know that randomness defect
correction, or bit scrambling, does not in any way add entropy to the output
sequence. Only the actual number of bits of entropy input to any deterministic
algorithm can be taken as true random output bits from such an algorithm.
Randomness defect correctors and bit scramblers
generally do not have proven, theoretical properties, which has resulted in
unknown or unpredictable properties and quality of the random sequences
produced by them. Also, not knowing the true entropy content in a random
sequence that is used in cryptographic applications may lead to vulnerability
to attack, especially by a quantum computer when one becomes available.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The device and method of the present invention
generates true random number sequences of calculable entropy content. The
entropy is derived from a random noise component, or transition jitter, in one
or both of a low and a highfrequency signal source that are coupled to a
processor for producing the random numbers. The highfrequency signal source
includes a frequency multiplier that significantly increases the size of the
noise component in the highfrequency signal.
OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES
Accordingly, several objects and advantages of
the present invention are: (a) to provide a random number generator that is
particularly suited for rapid production of true random numbers of known, high
quality on a personal computer using only the standard hardware provided on
most such computers; (b) to provide a random number generator of minimum
complexity and cost; (c) to provide a random number generator that optimally
utilizes the available entropy, thereby maximizing the rate of random number
generation; (d) to provide a very general method for calculating the available
entropy in true random number generators; (e) to provide a specific method for
reducing the defects in the randomness properties of a sequence of random
numbers which is easily implemented in an integrated circuit or in a computer
program; (f) to provide a general method for reducing the defects in the
randomness properties of a sequence of random numbers so that they will be
generally applicable to any use;
Still further objects and advantages will become
apparent from a consideration of the ensuing description and drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a general
embodiment of a true random number generator of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing oscillatory signals
plus transition jitter, illustrating the method of calculating entropy of the
present invention.
FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating one
embodiment of a true random number generator of the present invention included
in a personal computer.
FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating another
embodiment of a true random number generator of the present invention included
in a personal computer.
FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustrating one
method of the present invention for reducing defects in a random sequence.
FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating another
method of the present invention for reducing defects in a random sequence.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
A random number generator and method is
described with numerous specific details such as components, oscillator
frequencies and mathematical equations, in order to provide a thorough
understanding of the present invention. It will be obvious to one skilled in
the art that these specific details are not required to practice the present
invention.
FIG. 1
A random number generator 1 includes a first
oscillator 2 and a second oscillator 3. These oscillators are typically
implemented using simple logic elements such as CMOS inverting gates, resistive
and capacitive elements, and crystal resonators, as in the case of crystal
oscillators. The construction of this and other similar types of oscillators is
well known in the art. The term oscillator as used here, indicates a source of
oscillatory or timevarying signals. Amplified thermal noise, Schott noise, and
quantum mechanical noise generated by radioactive decay or singlephoton
detection are examples of other sources of oscillatory signals that can be used
in the random number generator of FIG. 1.
A second oscillatory signal from the second
oscillator is connected by a line 11 to a frequency multiplier 10. The
frequency multiplier may be implemented using many different wellknown
techniques. The particular technique depends somewhat on the nature of the
input oscillatory signal. For a binary signal, a phase locked loop frequency
multiplier may be employed. Also, a simple logic method employing a sequence of
exclusiveor gates with a resistorcapacitor time delay of the appropriate value
in one of each of their inputs will double the frequency at each exclusiveor
stage. If the input signal is of an analog type such as would be generated by
thermal noise, a broadband nonlinear multiplier could be used. The frequency
multiplier can multiply the input signal frequency by up to many thousands.
The output of the frequency multiplier is
connected to a processor 4 by a line 6. The output of the first oscillator is
also connected to the processor by a line 7. The processor in its simplest form
is a binary counter that is incremented on a zero crossing, or positivegoing
transition, of the output from the frequency multiplier. The value in the
counter is read on each positive transition of the output from the first
oscillator. The least significant bit of the counter is then used as one number
is a sequence of a random number output 8.
There are numerous methods of processing the two
oscillatory signals to produce random numbers. One of these uses multiple bits
from the counter value, each of which contains some independent entropy, and
subsequently processing the multiple bits to recover nearly all the available
entropy. Another method compares the values from two sequential counter
readings and outputs a 1 or 0 depending on which reading is larger.
In FIG. 1 and all other figs., a line can mean a
wire, a computer bus or any other means whereby an electronic signal is
conveyed from one point to another.
FIG. 2
A perfect sequence of true random numbers contains
exactly one bit of entropy for each bit in the sequence. If the entropy content
is less than one bit per bit, the sequence is not a true random sequence, but a
mixture of true and pseudorandom components.
An understanding of the entropy source process,
including an accurate and general mathematical model, is required in order to
know the actual entropy content of a random number sequence embodying that
entropy.
A first and a second oscillatory signal, 101 and
100 respectively are shown in the form of square waves. One of the oscillatory
signals, in this example, the second oscillatory signal, is used for timing and
is of a periodic nature. The first oscillatory signal can be derived from a
number of possible signal sources including thermal noise in resistive
elements, Schott noise in transistors and diodes, quantum mechanical noise in
nuclear decay or singlephoton processes, and chaotic noise such as found in
air turbulence. The noise source is then converted to a binary form for
processing, but the sometimeshuge cycletocycle variations in this binary
representation would not appear to be periodic at all.
The first step needed to calculate the entropy
from the two oscillatory signals is to determine the value of transition jitter
in each of the signals. This is done by a combination of direct measurements
and theoretical modeling depending on the particular sources of the oscillatory
signals. Nuclear decay produces an easily measurable average rate and a
theoretically known statistical distribution of decay timing. Crystal oscillators
have cycletocycle jitter characteristics that are measured by special
instruments designed for that purpose. The distribution of a crystal oscillator
jitter is nearly Gaussian, and the jitter values for particular crystals can be
obtained from, or calculated from information in the manufacturers'
specification sheets. For example, the jitter specifications for the output of
oscillator/clock synthesizers used in personal computers are measured by their
manufacturers and published in the relevant specification sheets.
The second step is combining the independent
transition values into one effective value. It must be noted that the total
transition jitter between two signals is relative, that is, the jitter in both
signals may be combined and represented as only existing in one of the signals,
without the loss of generality or accuracy in the results. For reasons of
simplicity and consistency, the total or effective jitter will always be
represented as a component of the lowerfrequency signal, in this example,
first signal 101. The jitter values must first be properly adjusted before they
can be combined. For Gaussian signals, this is done by multiplying the jitter
value in the higherfrequency oscillatory signal, in this example, second
signal 100 by the square root of the ratio of the average frequencies of the
second and first oscillatory signals respectively. The adjusted jitter value
can be combined with the first jitter value by adding in quadrature,
that is, squaring each value and taking the square root of their sum.
If the adjusted jitter value of the second
oscillatory signal is relatively small compared to that of the first
oscillatory signal, the jitter of the second oscillatory signal may be omitted
from the effective jitter value. A second jitter value that is 20% of a first
jitter value will contribute only about 2% to the effective value. Assuming a
zero value for the second oscillatory signal can greatly simplify the entropy
calculations, especially when the statistical distributions of the two
oscillatory signals are different. This simplification will cause the
calculated entropy value to be slightly lower than the actual entropy.
The next step is simply to divide the effective
jitter value by the period of the second oscillatory signal to produce a
normalized jitter value. This step simplifies the final calculations. The
normalized jitter is illustrated as diagonal lines 103 representing the
indeterminacy of the transition time of the first oscillatory signal. The
breaks in each signal 102 indicate that not all cycles of each signal are shown
in the Fig. since there may be thousands of cycles in the second oscillatory
signal for each period of the first oscillatory signal.
The next step is to calculate the average
probability of correctly predicting that the second oscillatory signal will be
in the high state, or 1, at a positive transition of the first oscillatory
signal. A single calculation of the probability of correctly predicting a high
value is made by integrating the probability distribution function (PDF) 106 of
the effective jitter in the first oscillatory signal that coincides with all
periods where the second oscillatory signal is in the high state. Hatched areas
107 in the PDF represent these coinciding periods. The PDF 106 is illustrated
as a Gaussian distribution; however, the actual distribution function
representing the statistics of the jitter in the first oscillatory signal is
used for the calculation. The center of the PDF is placed at the expected
positive transition time of the second oscillatory signal.
The average probability of correctly predicting
a high value, p(1), may be calculated numerically by
averaging the results of a large number of single probability values. The
single probability values are calculated at uniformly distributed placements of
the PDF across a single positive halfcycle of the second oscillatory signal,
starting at the rising edge 104 and ending at the falling edge 105. One skilled
in the art of mathematics can readily determine the minimum number of single
probability values necessary to achieve a particular accuracy in this
calculation.
The final step is to utilize the average
probability, p(1), to calculate the available entropy.
To state the equation in its simplest form, note that the average probability
of correctly predicting a low state or 0 is simply p(0)=1.0p(1).
These two probabilities are used in Shannon's equation for entropy, H:
where Ln represents the natural log. The optimum
value of the duty cycle of the second oscillatory signal is 50%. Any increase
or decrease in this value affects the average probability, p(1),
producing a 1/0 bias in the output sequence thereby reducing the available
entropy.
The method for calculating available entropy
will be further illustrated by means of a specific example: A crystal
oscillator operating at 14.318 MHz supplies a second oscillatory signal. The
cycletocycle root mean square (rms) jitter of this
oscillator is about 0.001 times its period, or 70 ps
rms. This value is taken from published articles describing direct measurements
made with special equipment designed to measure the noise spectrum in such
oscillators, wherefrom the jitter can be calculated. A resistor/capacitor, or
RC, CMOS oscillator produces a first oscillatory signal with a frequency of
1.02 KHz. The jitter in this oscillator may be measured with a readily
available spectrum analyzer and is about 7.times.10.sup.6 times the period of
the RC oscillator, or about 7 ns rms. The rms jitter
of the RC oscillator can also be measured by observing the peakpeak jitter on
an oscilloscope. The rms jitter is about onesixth to
oneseventh of the peakpeak jitter.
The jitter in the crystal oscillator is
multiplied by the square root of 14318/1.02, which gives an adjusted jitter
value of 8.3 ns rms. The next step is to combine the rms
jitter of both oscillators. This is done by squaring each component and taking
the square root of their sum. The resulting effective jitter is 10.86 ns rms. Dividing by the period of the HF oscillator normalizes the
effective jitter, which in this example is 69.8 ns. The result of this
normalization step is the dimensionless ratio, 0.156. The distributions of both
oscillators is approximately Gaussian, yielding a Gaussian distributed
effective jitter on the first oscillatory signal, with a standard deviation of
0.156 of the second oscillatory signal period.
The next step is to calculate the average
probability, p(1). The following Mathematical program
will illustrate this approach wherein: prob gives the
probability of correctly predicting a single transition of the first
oscillatory signal at a particular phase, mu, in the second oscillatory signal
cycle using a given normalized jitter, rho; and avgprob
numerically calculates the average of the prob
function across one positive half cycle of the second oscillatory signal.
The result of this calculation is .p(1)=0.75, and therefore, p(0)=0.25.
The final step is to use the calculated average
probabilities, p(1) and p(0), to calculate the actual
entropy, H, as illustrated in the Mathematica program:
The result of the entropy calculation wherein
p1=p(1) and p0=p(0), is H=0.81 bits. This means that a random number generator
composed of a counter being clocked by the second oscillator with the counter's
least significant bit (LSB) being latched as output bits by the first
oscillator's positive transitions will produce a sequence with an average
entropy of 0.81 bits per output bit. This 0.81 bits is not the total available
entropy: each bit in the counter of this example also contains entropy. The
amount of entropy in each bit can be calculated by dividing the normalized
jitter value by 2 to the power n, where n starts at 0 for the LSB and increases
by one for each succeeding bit. The second bit in the counter produces a
sequence of bits with entropy calculated from a normalized jitter of
0.165/2.=0.0825, yielding an entropy value of 0.56 bits. Taking the entropy
from each of the lower six bits of the counter gives a total available entropy
of 2.06 bits. These six bits must be subsequently processed to extract their
entropy to produce a sequence of true random numbers. Only about two bits will
be returned for every six bits processed, since that represents all the
available entropy.
The method of calculating the average
probability, p(1), relies on the assumption that the ratio of the second
oscillator frequency divided by the first oscillator frequency is an irrational
number, or at least not an integer or a rational fraction containing small
integers. This means that the rising edge of the first oscillatory signal will
be nearly uniformly distributed across the cycles of the second oscillatory
signal during the course of many cycles of the first oscillatory signal. If
this condition is not met, the available entropy, and any entropy available in
bits higher than the LSB may be significantly reduced. It is therefore
desirable to select frequencies of the two oscillatory signals that give a
ratio as far as possible from an integer or a rational fraction containing
small integers. One exception to this rule is when the two oscillatory signals
have exactly the same frequency and their average phase difference is zero
degrees. This will result in a theoretical entropy of 1.0 bits in the LSB even
for very small normalized jitter values, since p(1) is always exactly 0.5.
FIG. 3
A personal computer 12 of the usual type includes an
oscillator 15 a first frequency multiplier 18 and a microprocessor 20. The
oscillator of this embodiment is the reference oscillator which is a crystal
oscillator having a frequency of about 14.318 MHz.
The oscillator is connected to the first frequency multiplier by a line 16. The
frequency multiplier produces several different frequencies for use in the
personal computer, including a front side bus (FSB) frequency that ranges from
about 66.67 MHz upward in increments of 33.33 MHz.
The FSB is subsequently connected to the microprocessor by a line 19. The
microprocessor includes as part of its integrated circuit a second frequency
multiplier that multiplies the FSB up to the microprocessor core clock
frequency. The microprocessor core clock frequency ranges from about 100 MHz to
one or more GHz, depending on the type of microprocessor. A line 17 connects a
signal that is also derived from the reference oscillator to the
microprocessor. The microprocessor utilizes both the core clock and the signal
derived from the reference oscillator to produce an output sequence of true
random numbers 21. The rate of entropy generation will be at least 200 bits per
second.
FIG. 4
A personal computer 70 of the usual type includes a
first oscillator included in a real time clock 51. The real time clock (RTC)
oscillator is controlled by a crystal 50 to produce a frequency of about 32,768
Hz. This frequency is subsequently divided in the RTC to a maximum output
frequency of 8192 Hz. The 8192 Hz or lowfrequency signal is applied by a line
59 to the input of a programmable interrupt controller 52.
The personal computer also includes a second
oscillator that is independent of the first oscillator. The second oscillator
is crystal controlled by a crystal 53 to produce a reference frequency of about
14.318 MHz. The reference frequency oscillator is
included in a combined oscillator and clock synthesizer 54. The clock
synthesizer includes a first frequency multiplier that multiplies the reference
frequency to a front side bus (FSB) or mediumfrequency signal of about 66.67
MHz or higher in increments of 33.33 MHz. The clock
synthesizer also includes other frequency multipliers and dividers which
provide additional signals used by the personal computer.
The FSB signal is provided to the personal
computer's microprocessor 55 by a line 60. The microprocessor includes a second
frequency multiplier that multiplies the FSB frequency to the microprocessor
core clock or highfrequency signal, which ranges from about 100 MHz to above 1
GHz. The core clock frequency is applied to a counter included in the
microprocessor that counts each cycle of the core clock signal.
The output of the programmable interrupt
controller is applied to the microprocessor by a line 61 and the microprocessor
responds by reading the count in the counter. The microprocessor then processes
the count to produce a sequence of true random numbers that is sent to a random
number output 56 on a line 62.
The oscillator in the real time clock is used
for illustrative purposes and is not meant to limit the possible sources of the
lowfrequency signal to that component. Other possible sources of the
lowfrequency signal include an oscillator in one of the following: a display
card, an audio card, a network card, a modem, and a serial port card. In the
preferred embodiment, the ratio of the high to lowfrequency signals is at
least 10,000 and ranges up to over 122,000. The entropy available is well above
200 bits per second and can go higher than 20,000 bits per second.
FIG. 5
All true random number generators initially produce
sequences with defects in their randomness properties. A true random number
generator (RNG) with defects 120 produces a defectcontaining sequence of
numbers that are applied by a line 111 to the second input of a second
exclusiveor gate 122. The first input of the second exclusiveor gate is
connected by a line 136 to the output of a first exclusiveor gate 135. Line
136 also provides a defectreduced output sequence 140. Three shift registers
with lengths 9, 10, and 11, 128, 129, and 130 respectively, are made into
circular buffers by returning their outputs on lines 132, 133, and 133
respectively to their inputs through data selectors 123, 124, and 125
respectively. The three circular buffers also provide their outputs to the
three inputs of exclusiveor gate 135 wherein they are combined into one
defectreduced number. The circular buffers operate in a fashion equivalent to
addressing each of three circular buffers in a memory system and reading the
contents stored in the memory at each address.
A line 126 connects the RNG to a control clock
generator 121 which generates signals to control the timing of the circular
buffers and data selectors, and synchronize these functions with the RNG's
output. A clock signal is connected by a line 127 to all three circular buffers
to increment each of their addresses each time a new result is available at the
output of the second exclusiveor gate. This result is provided to one input of
each of the three data selectors by a line 131. Two of the three data selectors
route the outputs of their associated shift registers back to their inputs to
make them into circular buffers. The remaining data selector routes the output
of the second exclusiveor gate into the input of one of the remaining shift
register, thereby replacing the numbers stored therein until each number in the
shift register has been replaced. The control clock generator then signals the
next data selector to begin routing the output from the second exclusiveor
gate into the next shift register. The data selectors are separately controlled
by signals connected to each of them by lines 137, 138, and 139 which continue
to route a new number into one location of one circular buffer for each
defectreduced output number.
The number and length of circular buffers were
chosen to be small to simplify the illustration of the method of statistical
defect reduction. Additional circular buffers will produce greatly improved
results, up to about 8 buffers. Using more than about 8 buffers will not
produce detectably different results. The lengths of the buffers must be
relatively prime to produce best results. For fewer buffers, greater lengths
will give better results.
For simplicity of this description, a singlebit
process is illustrated in FIG. 5. The method herein described is equally
applicable to correcting defectcontaining numbers of any wordlength. This
methods are also selfinitializing. The defectreduced output sequences will
produce optimal statistical properties of randomness after all the numbers in
each circular buffer have been replaced about 10 times.
This method may also be used to perfect the
statistical properties of pseudorandom number generators since the defectreduced
output sequence has extremely good statistical properties of randomness.
An implementation of the illustrated method can
easily be produced for use in an integrated circuit or by using discrete logic
components. All the elements shown in FIG. 5 can be replaced by the equivalent
logic circuit except for the control clock generator. The control clock
generator consists of a preloadable down counter with its output connected to
a divide by three counter with decoded outputs. Each of the three decoded
outputs is connected to one of the three data selectors as well as to one of
three memory elements containing the lengths of each circular buffer. The
preloadable counter is loaded from the appropriate memory element with a
number corresponding to the length of the circular buffer whose numbers are to
be replaced. The counter counts down one for each output number until it
reaches zero. When zero is reached, the divide by three counter is incremented
and the number of the next circular buffer is preloaded into the down counter.
The shift registers are incremented for each new output after a short delay to
allow the data to stabilize at their inputs. This design can easily be extended
to any number and length of circular buffer.
FIG. 6
A true random number generator (RNG) with defects 200
produces a defectcontaining sequence of numbers that are applied by a line 201
to the second input of an exclusiveor gate 206. A pseudorandom number
generator 203 produces a random number with a seed produced by the exclusiveor
gate and applied by a line 202 to the pseudorandom number generator. The
generator produces an output that is sent by a line 205 as one number in a
defectreduced output 204. This same defectreduced number is also applied to
the first input of the exclusiveor gate. A new defectcontaining number is
applied to the exclusiveor gate for each defectreduced output number to
produce a new seed to produce a new defectreduced number, and so by repeating
the process, will produce a defectreduced output sequence of any desired
length.
The method herein described with respect to FIG.
6, is equally applicable to correcting defectcontaining numbers of any
wordlength. The method is selfinitializing. After only a few
defectcontaining numbers have been processed, the defectreduced output
sequences will produce optimal statistical properties of randomness.
Advantages
From the above description, a number advantages
of my true random number generator and method become evident:
(a) True random number generators containing
very simple, small, and inexpensive components can be built that will produce
random sequences with quantified entropy content. These characteristics allow
the easy, widespread use of true rather than pseudorandom generators in
situations where they would not have previously been used.
(b) True random numbers can be rapidly and
reliably generated on personal computers without adding any additional
hardware. This makes true random numbers of provable high quality available to
almost anyone with a personal computer, merely by installing a software package
that can be immediately downloaded from the Internet at a very low cost.
(c) Random number sequences containing
statistical defects can be corrected so that the resulting sequences have
effectively perfect randomness properties. This allows the corrected sequences
to be used with confidence in any application requiring randomness. Such
provable high quality in random sequences has previously been complex and expensive
to obtain.
Conclusion, Ramifications and Scope
Randomness is a very subtle concept that has not
at present been precisely defined in mathematical or technical terms. Many
users of random numbers have little understanding of the fundamentals of entropy
and true random number generation. Consequently much time and resources have
been wasted by using random number sequences of insufficient quality. This lack
of precise definition and quantifiability has caused
some researchers to produce erroneous results without their knowledge, or
encrypted data to be compromised, potentially resulting in significant losses.
Accordingly the reader will see that random
number generators practiced according to the present invention will close the
loopholes of quality and complexity in currently available random number
generators, and make virtually perfect random numbers available
to nearly everyone at extremely low cost.
The availability of such high quality random
numbers is increasingly more important in this age where information,
information flow, and information processing has become a significant sector of
both our economy and culture.
Although the description above contains many
specificities, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present
invention, but merely as providing illustrations of some of the presently
preferred embodiments of this invention. For example, the internal structure of
personal computers may change in many ways, such as including more of the
functions that are currently contained on separate boards or circuitry into a
smaller set of more complex integrated circuits. The bus structure and the
frequencies employed therein may also change as microprocessors and other
components become faster and faster.
Thus the scope of the invention should be
determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by
the examples given.
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